All About Prostate Gland
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What Is Prostate Cancer?
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Discuss prostate cancer screening with your doctor. Together, you can decide what's best for you. The prostate gland is located just below the bladder in men and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra.
The prostate's primary function is to produce the fluid that nourishes and transports sperm seminal fluid. Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when some cells in your prostate become abnormal. Mutations in the abnormal cells' DNA cause the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die. The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue.
Some abnormal cells can also break off and spread metastasize to other parts of the body.
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Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. Avoid high-fat foods and instead focus on choosing a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health. Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved.
But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health. Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. There is some evidence that men who don't exercise have higher PSA levels, while men who exercise may have a lower risk of prostate cancer.
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Try to exercise most days of the week. If you're new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day. Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. Men with a high risk of prostate cancer may consider medications or other treatments to reduce their risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride Propecia, Proscar and dutasteride Avodart , may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer.
These drugs are used to control prostate gland enlargement and hair loss in men. However, some evidence indicates that men taking these medications may have an increased risk of getting a more serious form of prostate cancer high-grade prostate cancer.
- Possible pre-cancerous conditions of the prostate.
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If you're concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor. Prostate cancer care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Prostate cancer Prostate cancer occurs in the prostate gland, which is located just below a male's bladder and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra.
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Prostate gland The prostate gland is located just below the bladder in men and surrounds the top portion of the tube that drains urine from the bladder urethra. Share on: Facebook Twitter. References Prostate cancer. McNeal found that the relatively homogeneous cut surface of an adult prostate in no way resembled "lobes" and thus led to the description of "zones".
The prostate gland has four distinct glandular regions, two of which arise from different segments of the prostatic urethra:. The "lobe" classification is more often used in anatomy. The prostate is incompletely divided into five lobes:. The prostatic part of the urethra develops from the pelvic middle part of the urogenital sinus endodermal origin.
Endodermal outgrowths arise from the prostatic part of the urethra and grow into the surrounding mesenchyme. The glandular epithelium of the prostate differentiates from these endodermal cells, and the associated mesenchyme differentiates into the dense stroma and the smooth muscle of the prostate.
Condensation of mesenchyme , urethra and Wolffian ducts gives rise to the adult prostate gland, a composite organ made up of several glandular and non-glandular components tightly fused. During male seminal emission, sperm is transmitted from the vas deferens into the male urethra via the ejaculatory ducts, which lie within the prostate gland. Ejaculation is the expulsion of semen from the urethra.
It is possible for some men to achieve orgasm solely through stimulation of the prostate gland, such as prostate massage or anal intercourse. Prostatic secretions vary among species. They are generally composed of simple sugars and are often slightly alkaline. The secretions also contain zinc with a concentration —1, times the concentration in blood. To function properly, the prostate needs male hormones androgens , which are responsible for male sex characteristics. The main male hormone is testosterone , which is produced mainly by the testicles.
It is dihydrotestosterone DHT , a metabolite of testosterone, that predominantly regulates the prostate. Examples of some of the most prostate specific proteins are enzymes , such as the prostate specific antigen PSA , and the ACPP protein. The volume of the prostate can be estimated by the formula 0.
What Is Prostate Cancer?
Prostatomegaly can be due to any of the following conditions. Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. There are primarily four different forms of prostatitis, each with different causes and outcomes. Two relatively uncommon forms, acute prostatitis and chronic bacterial prostatitis, are treated with antibiotics category I and II, respectively. More recently, a combination of trigger point and psychological therapy has proved effective for category III prostatitis as well.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH occurs in older men;  the prostate often enlarges to the point where urination becomes difficult. Symptoms include needing to urinate often frequency or taking a while to get started hesitancy. If the prostate grows too large, it may constrict the urethra and impede the flow of urine, making urination difficult and painful and, in extreme cases, completely impossible. BPH can be treated with medication, a minimally invasive procedure or, in extreme cases, surgery that removes the prostate.
In TURP, an instrument is inserted through the urethra to remove prostate tissue that is pressing against the upper part of the urethra and restricting the flow of urine. Older men often have corpora amylacea  amyloid , dense accumulations of calcified proteinaceous material, in the ducts of their prostates.
The corpora amylacea may obstruct the lumens of the prostatic ducts, and may underlie some cases of BPH. Urinary frequency due to bladder spasm, common in older men, may be confused with prostatic hyperplasia. Statistical observations suggest that a diet low in fat and red meat and high in protein and vegetables , as well as regular alcohol consumption, could protect against BPH. Life-style changes to improve the quality of urination include urinating in the sitting position. Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting older men in developed countries and a significant cause of death for elderly men.
Screening for prostate cancer may be in the form of a physical rectal examination or measurement of prostate specific antigen PSA level in the blood. However, given the significant risk of overdiagnosis with widespread screening in the general population, prostate cancer screening is controversial. The prostate is found as a male accessory gland in all placental mammals excepting edentates , martens , badgers and otters.
The gland is particularly well developed in dogs, foxes and boars, though in other mammals, such as bulls, it can be small and inconspicuous. They excrete this fluid along with their urine to mark their territory.
This mixes with and coagulates semen during copulation to form a mating plug that temporarily prevents further copulation. The prostate gland originates with tissues in the urethral wall. This means the urethra , a compressible tube used for urination, runs through the middle of the prostate. This leads to an evolutionary design fault for some mammals, including human males. The prostate is prone to infection and enlargement later in life, constricting the urethra so urinating becomes slow and painful.
Skene's gland is found in both female humans and rodents.